This study examines the long-term impact of chemical warfare agents by focusing on social abandonment and uncertain marriages. Exposure to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is conceptualized in terms of stigmatized illnesses that in turn produce loneliness and social isolation, leading to negative impacts on other aspects of professional and social life. The study details how survivors of CWAs exposure have developed a sense of gendered uncertainty around getting married and building a family. It demonstrates a gendered pattern: CWAs-exposed females were more affected psychosocially than CWAs-exposed males. More CWAs-exposed females were unemployed, divorced or single, or lived under vulnerable circumstances compared to males.
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